Heartworms are a deadly parasite that are spread by mosquitoes. If there are mosquitoes living in your area (welcome to the south), then your pet is at risk of acquiring heartworms.
Dogs are the normal host for heartworms, though some cats and ferrets can also be infected.
Heartworms are spaghetti size worms that live in the heart of animals infected with heartworms. These worms eventually cause heart and lung damage that leads to death. The worms will produce small babies (called microfilaria), that circulate throughout the dogs bloodstream. When a mosquito bites a dog with heartworms, it will suck up blood along with the baby heartworms. When the mosquito bites a second dog, the baby heartworms are transmitted into the second dog. These eventually end up in the heart where they start their damage. These worms will then start producing babies, and the process continues.
The treatment for heartworms is a 10-12 week process that consists of arsenic injections. This treatment can be both toxic and expensive.
What heartworm preventative does is that it destroys the baby heartworms before they can make it to the heart. We will start puppies on heartworm preventative at 7 weeks old and keep them on it for life. It is given year round in the south because we can have mosquitoes flying around at Christmas time.
There are many options for heartworm preventative, ranging from monthly oral to topical treatments. Dogs over 6 months old can also be given a multi-month injection.
Puppy socialization is the act of exposing the puppy to many of the experiences and stress-producing situations that will occur in a dog’s life. Lack of puppy socialization can lead to aggression, fear biting, and other behavior issues. The best time for puppy socialization is between 7 to 16 weeks of age.
Puppy socialization should include exposure to new sights, smells, sounds, and surfaces. This includes learning to be handled for grooming and bathing and getting them used to have their feet handled so they are not afraid of nail trims. Having them exposed to new people and other fully vaccinated dogs in a controlled situation is also very important. Alone time will also help prevent separation anxiety as they mature.
Since we don’t want to put the puppies at risk until their vaccinations are completed, we can do certain things to minimize exposure to disease while still socializing the puppy. This would include 1) strollers or backpacks to keep the puppy off the ground but still able to see the neighborhood 2) Having the children dress up in hats, costumes, or sunglasses to expose the puppy to different clothing 3) Taking the puppy to the shopping center while they sit in the car with the owner to see different people and sights.
This question is sometimes asked, “Why do puppies need vaccinations?” The answer to that question is that newborn puppies receive protective antibodies from their mothers while they are in the womb and after they nurse their mother in the first few days after birth. These protective antibodies start wearing off around 6 weeks of age.
Between 6 and 8 weeks of age is when we will start vaccinating these animals so that they can slowly build up immunity to these deadly infections, such as Parvovirus and Distemper virus. These vaccines will be given every 3 to 4 weeks until the puppies are 16 weeks old. At that time the majority of dogs will be protected in case they are exposed to any of these viruses. That is why we recommend that owners keep the puppies close to the house and yard until this immunity is achieved. Taking young puppies to the dog park or to areas where other dogs have been is not a great idea until after the last vaccinations.